1.rigid/ stiff/ unchanged/ little change 僵硬的,一成不变的

2.significant/enormous/dramatic/tremendous/appreciably/remarkable/crucial/ 巨大的,明显的,程度大的/substantial

3.approximately 将近-nearly, almost

4.proportion/ percentage 比例

5.be involved (in)/ involve in/ involvement [n.] 涉及,卷入,参与

given/ considering , in regard to / despite/ although 有鉴于 考虑到,尽管

6.induce [v] 引入,引导,引诱/ inductive [n] 归纳 >< deduce /deductive推断

7.fortune/ destiny/ chances

8.deplete 开采完,耗尽/ exhaust exhaust emission (尾气)排放/ exploit

9.complex 错综复杂的/ complicated/ sophisticated 老奸巨滑的,复杂的

10.capacity能力,容量/ competence (竞争)能力/ ability 能力(笼统的)

11.确保,保障:Secure-security/ ensure (insure)/ guarantee 押金

12.solely/ merely/ only

13.a vast array of 系列/ a great variety of 花样,品种/ a great rang 系列 of

14.pesticide 杀虫/ suicide 自杀/ homicide/ murder杀人

15.believe/ assume (responsibility)/ suppose

16.授权,委托:authorize/ commission 佣金/ entitle 头衔 + ment =right (权利)

17.purchase/ buy

18. ethnic 种族的/ ethic 伦理,道德的 + s =[n ]

19. modify/ change [v] shift work 轮班工作[n]

20. insight/knowledge/ learning/ understanding/ knowing

21.constrain拘泥,限制/ restrict 限制/ limit

22. circumstance 环境(社会 / surroundings/ environment 环境( 环保 )背景

background 后台 / settings后台,布景/ context 上下文( 文章中

23.notorious 臭名昭著的/ flagrant臭的><fragrant 香的

24.移民:immigrant (进来)/ emigrant(出去)/migrant

25.兴旺,繁荣;prosperous/ thriving/ booming(人口,行业)/flourishing

26.神圣的:divine/ heavenly/ holy/ sacred

27.有毒的:poisonous/ toxic ( in-, non- 无毒的)

28.致命的:deadly/ fatal/ lethal/ mortal

29.类似于:look like/ resemble

30. chronic长期的,慢性的— long-term 长期的

31.网恋:virtual love/ cyber love

32.网友:on-line /net/ cyber friend 上网(聊天)chat on line/ go on-line cyber café/网吧

33.evolve-evolution 进化/ revolute-revolution 革命,旋转/ involve-involution 卷入,涉及

34. indicator/ predictor 表示诠释,预测

35.indicate/ demonstrate/ display/exhibit/betray

36. therapist /expert/ specialist

37. 优点,长处,美德:advantage/ merit/ virtue/ length

38. commonest/ frequent

39. 未开发的,初级的:rudimentary/ underdeveloped

40. 退化:degenerate/ -tion [n] ->generate 生产,制造/ degrade ->grade 等级/ deteriorate 恶化

41. 分类:category-categorize/ class-classify

42. consequence后果->影响/ subsequence紧跟其后/ sequence=order秩序/ frequency频率

43.clash 冲突(民族,种族)/crash 飞机坠毁

44. substitution=> substitute sth for sb /replace

45.alternative=> 选择性,代替性,辅助性

46.孤立:isolate/ alienate/insulate隔绝, 排外,孤立->be alien to/insulate (-ior) 绝缘,隔热(体)

47.缺点,不足之处:defect/ flaw/ failing/ disadvantage /drawback

48.创新的,发明的,新颖的,创新的:inventive (-tion)/ innovative (-tion)/ creative (-tion)/ ingenious (ity)/novel (-ty) =>[n]/creative/revolutionary

49neutral 中立的,中性的 /negative 否定,消极,阴性的 /positive 肯定,积


50ambiguous->ambiguity 模棱两可的,暧昧的/obscure

51.communicate 沟通,传达,通报

52.accommodate 1...食宿,2=adapt to 适应,调整,3=hold 容纳,4使…停靠

53.commitment 1 ~ to sth 奉献 2 责任,义务

54contribute to 导致 ~ result in /account for (占据)导致

54.缺乏的,不足的:inadequate/ insufficient/ deficient/lack (of)/ short (of)

55.强调:emphasize/ stress/ highlight/ focus on/ concentrate on 明显的:

apparently 显而易见的/patently 道貌岸然的/ obviously=>evidently

56.对…怀疑:(be) /skeptical/skeptical /dubious/ suspicious (about/of)

57.缺点,缺陷:drawback/ fault/ defect/ imperfection/ failing/ weakness/ shortcoming/ flaw

58.臭命昭著的:notorious->notoriety/ flagrant/ smelly/ odorous

59.机构,组织:association/ structure /organization

60.超过:exceed/ surpass

61.岩浆:molten rock/ lava/ magma

62.语言:linguist ~学家/ lingual~有关的/ bilingual/ 双语

63.多种多样的:diversity/ variety/ breed/ species  breed[n]品种,[v]繁殖,培养,引起

64.dialect 方言 accent 腔调

65.开始的,初步的:begin/ launch/ initial (-ly) [v] 首字母,开始的/ initiate开始,发动->initiative原创性= origin

66.贫穷:poor/ in poverty/ impoverished 被剥夺财产的)

67.杰出:eminence (-t)/ prominence (-t)/unusual

68.gene/ genetic defect ~缺陷/ anatomy解剖/ conceive构思,怀孕/ deliver分娩

69.辅助性:alternative 补充性/ therapist

70.演绎,推理:deduce->deductive / inferential >< induce 引导,引入,归纳-> induction 归纳

71.令人困惑的:bewildering/ puzzling/ perplexing


73.subsidize辅助/ subsidy 补助,补贴/ subsidiary

74.a factor in sth/ depend on sth

75.be preferred by/ choice

76.attitude to/ how

77.the present century/ modern society

78.broad/ great

79.in term of 按照,在…方面,关于/with regard to, in spite of 不顾,尽管

80. small-scale 小范围/ marginal 边缘处的

81. physical/ medical

82.negotiation/ agreement 谈判,洽谈/ 商定,协议

83.evolve/ develop

84.apartment/ accommodation 公寓/ 住房

85.virtual (love)/ simulate 模拟的(网恋)/ 模拟

86.catastrophe/ disaster 大灾难/ 灾难,不幸

87.innovate/ invent 革新,创新/ 发明,创造 sculpture/ craft 雕刻,雕塑/ 工艺

88.exorbitant/ expensive 过度的,极高的/ 费用大的,昂贵的

89. be participant in/ take part in /participate in

90.labour [美,澳]/work

91.attend to/ take care of

92.dual employment/ dual-worker 双职工(家庭)

93.indicate/ predict 指示,表明,象征/ 预料,预言

94.expert/ therapist 专家,能手;知识丰富的/ 某个专科的专家

95.lead to/ be associated with 相联系(带来…的好处)

96.balanced/ equitable 平等的

97.handicap/ disabled/primitive 残疾的,落后的

98. could not-and cannot/ has always been unable to

99.benefit/ advantage

100.substantial influence/ greater likelihood

101.agree on/ define

102.considered desirable/ effectiveness

103.masquerade/ (in) disguise 伪装

104.insignificant/ didnt seriously 不重要/不严重的

105.inspect/ examine 审核,检查

106caliber/ criterion 标准

107no-one know>< notorious 无人知晓><臭名昭著的

108dissatisfy/ argue 不满意/厌恶,讨厌

109.pessimism/ negative/ blue>< optimistic 悲观的,忧郁的>< 乐观的

110.unsatisfactory/ hardly be looked upon

111.identify/ define

112.turn… into/ become

113.urban/ rural/suburban

114.demolish/ knock down/ dismantle 毁坏,拆毁(建筑物)/ 敲,打

115.migration/ move 迁移/ 移动

116.pay/ charge sb for 向某人…猛攻,充电,负责,付费,控诉

117.separate/ split 分开,使隔绝,提取/ 分,劈开

118.fascination/attraction (-e:[v]) 迷住,吸引住

119.not require/ unnecessary 不需要/ 不必要

120.decode/ decipher 译解(密码),解释

121.delay/ drawback= disadvantage 耽误,延迟/ 欠缺,弊端

122.association/ organization 机构,关联/ 组织

123.*recent/ current/ nowadays/present 最近的/ 现代的/ 当今的/现在

124.intensive burst/ explosive release 强烈的爆发/ 爆炸性的释放

125.recognized/ identified 承认,识别,认可/ 识别,鉴别

126.aim to/ focus on 针对,目标,打算/ 集中

127.linkto/ lead to 连接/导致,通向

128. inadequate (diet)/ deficiency (in trace minerals) 不充分,不适当的/ 缺乏,不足

129.basic/ fundamental 基础的,基本的

130.seize/ catch 捕捉,抓住

131.fatal/ lethal 致命的

132.success on/ running on 成功

133.costly/ be related by 有关系的

134.be obtained in/ be derived in 获得,流行,通用/ 由…产生,起源于

135.high-income/ wealthy 高收入的/富裕的

136.be alike/ be similar to 相同的,相似的

137.indicate/ show 显示,指出,象征

138. eliminate/ lessen ><消除/ 减少

139. not risen significantly/ stagnate 停滞不前的

140.salary/ wage 工资:总称/ 蓝领的

141.create/ gain 创造,造成/ 获得,增加 efficiently/ increased productivity 有效率的/ 上升的生产率

142.economy/ financial 经济

143.administration/ management 144.(be) sympathetic/ understand 同情的,赞同/ 理解

145.introduce/ involve 引入/ 卷入

146.change/ different

147.die>< exist 死亡><存在

148.almost/ approximately

149.be out of date/ be developed

150.solve/ reduce 减少

151.famous/ eminent

152.barrier/ hurdle

153.higher position/ top post

154.Advantage: virtue,merit,benefit, positive aspect, strength, 好处 ,优点,长处

155.Disadvantage: weakness, failing, weakness, defect, drawback, negative aspect,


156.Casual: arbitrary, unplanned, unexpected, 随意的

157.Effective: efficient, effectual, fruitful, productive, valid多效的

158.Criticize: reproach, blame, 批评

159.Flaw: weakness, defect 缺点

160.Ability; capability, power, caliber能力